Observation & Observer


An observation consists of multiple stages – (Network of parallel and serially executed steps). Each stage involves one or more set of similarly classifiable objects. Subject Selection, Object Identification, Experiencing the subject, Recording, Cross-fertilization, Measurement, Communication and External Cross-Fertilization are elements of an observation. The Cause & Effect Logic is central to cross-fertilization of experience with current knowledge base that translates an experience into observation.

Subject Selection: The subject may be defined specific to a purpose to prove/disapprove a cause-effect explanation to a previous observation. It can also be defined in general terms of capabilities where subject selection is partly left to External Cross-Fertilization stage of observation. Observer capabilities are defined by the instruments, tools as well as available knowledge base.

Object Identification & Unit of Observation: Once observation setup is ready, the first stage is object identification. This process includes object localization and various interactions with the object/objects to establish identity. Measurements may or may not be performed. If performed, measured parameters may (Or may not) be related to actual observation. The units used to establish object identity are termed as units of observation. The units for identification are independent of final measurement units. Consider human observer observing length of an object. The observation units are in the range of visible light wavelength, while measuring units are defined by the scale used to measure length. A definite conversion between the two does not exist.
Experience the subject: A recorded experience is the observation. The record may be created before or after the experience. The object may be experienced by contact (Includes bouncing, emission & absorption of secondary objects) or from a distance.

Recording: Some observations are completed in multiple parts. Each part result into some sort of a record. One or more records originating from different sets of instruments at different locations or same locations may conclude first part. Archeological artifacts – the object itself is the record. In another way, Archeological Artifact the object is its own observer. The age and changes that occurred in the past to the object is determined by the analysis. In this determination, object is its own observer. These are then extended to object’s environments. Now the object is a record of experiencing the subject environments.

Observation as expression of post event continuing state of the observer: Archeological objects are example record of observation that is preserved post event in continuing state of the observer.

Cross-fertilization: Cross-fertilization is interpretation of contemporary experience with past observations. Some of this happens in the lab instrumentation itself. But lot of it is executed outside with active human participation & knowledge base (Records and Interpretation of previous Observations). This interpretation continues till finally uniform cause-effect logic integrates the observation (Observed facts) into existing knowledge base of mankind. In this respect there exist a number of observations that await conclusion.

Measurement & Units of measurement: The experience is measured directly or thru the recordings. The translation of experience into a number and unit is the objective of measurement. Established human knowledge is deployed to the observation using instruments. A unit represents a well interpreted quantity, and number a symbol that represents measure quantity as compared to the unit quantity. There may exist, multiple well interpreted quantities for a measurement. In such a case, multiple units are available to observer to express the measurement using different combination of numbers & units. Multiple measurement units are all inclusive – a measurement can be represented in any of the inclusive units by mathematical conversion of associated number. The observation unit may or may not be inclusive to the units of measurements.

Communication, Translation & External Cross-fertilization:. Precise and unambiguous communication is essential to an observation. Communications is essential to observations, for external cross-fertilization, it is required that the communication means be similar to ones used in previous similar observations. This by itself reinforces previous held views and conclusions. It is normally a challenge to introduce new concepts.

Consider the observation ‘Grass is Green’. This observation results from incident white light falling on the object. The grass constituents filter & disperse the incident light. The sensitivity of human eye (Retina) to the light spectrum, and interpretation of optical nerve signals by the brain. All this will have little meaning, unless human brain could memorize and retrieve these experiences. Thus the observation of color depends on properties of multiple objects. The continuing state of observer is the memorized observer’s experience in presence of grass and white light source.

In the observation, the object under observation is constituents of grass that filter & disperse the incident light. There are many other objects and phenomenon that participate in the processes of observation. These objects may perform a central or critical function, for example, brain, eye, optical imaging, and white light spectrum, atomic and molecular structure of grass’s constituents. The observation is transparent to these objects and phenomenon.

The act of observation may be tokenized into a sequence of steps. Multiple “set of objects” may participate in a step. A “set of object” is a collection of objects that behave similarly during the course of observation.

Thus in our case we have following collection of objects – Light Source, Photons, Grass, Human Eye and Observer-Human Brain.

The observation results from sequential occurrence of these steps.

Photons of different frequency are emitted by light source; they interact with constituent of the object (Grass). Some of them are absorbed by grass constituent others are not. The left over photons enter the human eye to activate cells on human eye-retina. This activation is transmitted by optical nerve to brain that feels and records the experience.

The observation “Grass is green” reflects the selective absorption of photon depending on frequency. This observer is blind to so many other phenomenons’ that participate in the process – including functioning of human eye, brain, photosynthesis and others. The subject of observation in this case is grass (0bject) and color (Property).

The subject of an observation consists of an object and its characteristics. The object itself may be identified as a composite object – set of objects. The first step of observation processes is

Subject selection. The subject may be auto-selected depending on observer’s capability and environment of existence. It can be carefully articulated to repeat and verify existing observations. The subject of observation may be an object, parameters or concept. The observer is different from subject of observation.

An event is an indivisible observation step, of which observer is not a participant object. The separation of observer from participating objects forms the basis of concept observers with defined observation power.

Memory plays an important role in observation. For observation “Grass is Green” not only the perception of color but also identification of the object as grass is equally important. The object identity may be acquired directly from current experience or pre-recorded observations.

The pre-recorded observations collectively form the knowledge of observer. Pre-recorded observations may be summarized into hypothesis and/or laws general or specific to a situation. This knowledge base is strengthened by cross fertilization among different observations both individually and collectively by a set of observers.

Cause-effect logic learnt early by human child, is important concept humanity have evolved by this cross fertilization. Learnt early as a child, initially learnt without a supporting language, it is reflected in most of observations. The melodious sound on dropping a pebble in water, hunting, climbing a tree to pluck fruit, coughing are all human actions that result from cause-effect logic learnt at an early age. Learnt cause-effect logic is included as conclusions arrived at each stage of observation and resulting actions.

Cross-fertilization with existing observation repository is integrated, based on the cause-effect logic. It integrates them with existing observation repository. The significance of observation to be integrated into repository is decided by repository it-self. The integration cycle for observations with observation repository is self assuming – it extrapolates and sometimes extends the observation itself.

The self-assuming characteristic in cross-fertilization and its integration to observation has been exploited by many professional entertainers – magicians, cinematographers. It can create experiences way outside the facts of nature. The self assuming characteristic of cross-fertilization is well observed in how a viewpoint on nature is widely accepted as truth (flat earth) and difficulty faced by observer of events proving it otherwise.

Human experiences can be classified into two categories based on repeatability. Cause and effect makes all experiences to have a reason. If experience is repeatable by man, it can be controlled, studied and documented as an observation for processing into human knowledge base. The result is contemporary science (Material Science).

If it is not controllable, it can still be studied and documented as an experience. Few of natural phenomenons in this category are life, death, flooding, drought, storms, earthquakes and motion of heavenly bodies. To enable its integration into a knowledge base, the cause-effect logic still needs to be completed. These experiences are articulated into observations by science of religion. Beginning with premises like ‘God’, ‘good’, ‘bad’, ‘evil’, ‘heaven’ and ‘hell’, the science of religion can put into cause effect logic totality of human observations (Spiritual Science).

With advancement in material science, the coverage in scope (of natural phenomenon) between two streams has considerably reduced. The gap in terms of social experiences is diminishing as well.

The success of spiritual science over material science to satisfactorily explain the experiences is the result of self-assuming character of Cause Effect Logic.

Once a concept is internalized, subsequent experiences and observations tend to re-enforce the concept. To circumvent this strength, a very strong observation and conceptual repudiation is required. Famous examples areNewton’s Inertia, Geometry of Earth, and Mathematical concept of Addition (Special Relativity), etc.

Communication is essential part of cross-fertilization processes both individually and collectively. Associating the experience with a language that allows similar interpretation of signal at time of recording and later-on when read. The language internal to the individual observer may or may not be same as one used externally.

Elementary comparative statements are essential to any language. It establishes two observations to be identical, enabling access to stored information for retrieval. This is supplemented by assessment of deviations from a stored observation. Cross-Fertilization & recording of an observation can be in terms of fresh observation, extending an existing (identification of grass as the object that is green). It can be related to previous observation – by change by time by place-geography, by observation, by object-compare & enhance.

External Cross-fertilization

The knowledge base, available to the modern observer has increased exponentially in last few centuries. The progress has been made possible by extending the knowledge base outside of observer. The development of skills (read, write & orate) for communication of observed experiences have enabled individual observation to be presented along with other observations. The combined evaluation of an observation along with other observations has extended the cross-fertilization processes external to the observer.

Theoreticians organize these observations to establish or deny patterns (Like charges repel and opposite charges attract each other). This cross-fertilization process is very visible in the evolution of modern concept in science.

The literary skills are augmented by mathematics. Use of mathematics; has enabled integration of quantitative arguments in recording observations not previously possible.

Unit Objects are integral part of any comparative observation. They don’t participate in the direct observation processes, but are part of cross-fertilization /Recording of observation.

Measurement is an observation cross-fertilized with concepts of unit object and mathematics. Measurement by it-self is integrated through this external cross-fertilization process. In most cases measurement processes involves use of instruments that are calibrated using standard unit objects. External Cross-fertilization may introduce uncertainties in measured values. The use of instruments in observations – preempts or reinforces the observations with existing knowledge base in the processes of translating an event into an observation ready for recording. This auto cross-fertilization mechanics and recording processes can also compromise an observation.

Most of fundamental laws (like invariance and conservation laws) do not introduce uncertainties. While observations (or parts there of) independent of them can increase the uncertainties. There are two uncertainties types introduced by external cross-fertilization.

Uncertainty in Value: The one assignable to calibration and retention of values can be removed by technological improvements or new discoveries over time.

Uncertainty in Concept: A Discovery process is external Cross-Fertilization with primary tool of Cause-effect logic. A large part of knowledge base now resides out of reach of the observer at the time of recording of observation. However, in subject selection, object identification, recording instrumentation the normal self-assuming process may record observations incorrectly. Scientific community has developed tools to correct/dismiss such records over time.

The discoveries that define the measurement itself are subject to uncertainties. Many of these discoveries are in arena of astrophysics. Astrophysics observations are most indirect in contemporary science that maximally utilizes External Cross-fertilization.


Man has very powerful capability to observe through substantial powers bestowed by nature. The five senses of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing with other internal senses, Balance and acceleration, Temperature, Kinesthetic sense & Pain has created a power observer in Man. Direct observation and intuitive judgment has been proved to be misplaced in some instances. Developments in science have established that human observation powers were insufficient to observe many aspects of nature including atomicity of matter, science of vision etc…..

The limitations on observer that are not dependent on knowledge & tools are incorporated as laws of nature into human knowledge. Laws of thermodynamics, conservation, relativity all in one form or the other define the limitations nature places on observer. We can say all observers have limited power of observation in this sense. The power of observation is subject to laws of nature.

Repeated experiments and refinements of associated infrastructure (Including instruments, interpreters and previous experimental results) have improved the human observation power. This process will probably continue indefinitely. Power to observe depends on an ever changing repository of human knowledge, as well as possible natural limits to observation. It is not possible to construct an absolute observer, which can observe every bit of nature. We can state that it is also not possible to define an absolute physical observer – capable of observing nature to its full details.

All observers are not equal. So it is important to understand the affects of limitations on the results of observation.

Lab Observer: A typical lab observer is limited by available tools & instruments. His limit includes scope, observable field, units of measures, parameters. By continuous improvement in technology and human knowledge these limitations are continuously reduced, exposing more and more of nature to observation.

Limitations on Observation Power: In general, there are limitations on the power of observer to observe. The point is illustrated below by means of an example;

Let us consider three observers – observing an object moving with constant speed in two-dimensional space. One of the observer ‘Ox’ can observe only displacement with respect to X dimension, Observer ‘Oy’ can observe only displacement in Y dimension, while observer ‘Oxy’ can observe the displacement in plane XY.

Given:         As observer Oxy, the object moves with constant speed


As observer Ox, the object movements are limited to this constant speed

As observer Oy, the object movements are limited to this constant speed

Observation of constant speed of object needs to wait arrival of observer Oxy. Before Oxy arrival, the nature would look perfect, with object moving at different speeds with a limiting speed common to all observers. Once the means of relating observations of two observers, the technology to communicate, and related mathematics to interpret the observed speed as sin/cos functions is available, the observer Oxy arrives on the scene to discover constant speed of the object.

The reality as observed before arrival of Oxy is self consistent, but does not directly translate to a fact of nature (In this case – constant speed of object). Understanding limitations on observation help evaluate the results of experiments.

Driving Logic of PicoPhysics: The understanding that observed reality may not be a fact is essential motivation to go beyond what may be current accepted reality, and revaluate basics of science with the knowledge currently available to us.

Most observations begin with a binary result. The negative result is represented as ‘Binary Zero’ and a Positive result encourage observer to go on to next measurement point (unit). Some others are based on observing the magnitude resulting in a binary only result, and applying unit conversion to establish magnitude for communication between observers. When a binary positive result is obtained, with a given unit, the unit is converted to a unit of measurement/ communicating the result to provide a number representing the quantity. Most observations using instrument falls in second category.

Thus, an observation is translated to a measurement by means of instruments and interpretation. In both cases the previously obtained knowledge is built-in, memorized or conceptualized. Thus an observer has to use instruments, and interpret the measurement to communicate his observation meaningfully.

Many observations are conclusions based on existing human knowledge of the reality and related theoretical constructs. As human knowledge increases, the limitation of previous observations manifests.

Concept Observer: Reality is interaction among objects that exist because of conserved entities like energy. A concept observer is an abstraction of reality applied to observations. It facilitates understanding of these interactions and communicates propositions to explain cause & affect relationship of events constituting reality. A concept observer does not participate in the interaction itself.

A concept observer is the observer that is guided in its observation (measurements & interpretation) by a given concept.

Consider an observer designed to observe movement of astronomical objects – may be using Hubble telescope in space. He is guided as below;

  1. Atomic structure and it’s relationship with emitted spectrum of radiations
  2. Identifying source of emission (material) by correlation with spectrum of radiations
  3. All concepts and laws of physics dealing with change in frequency as a function of dynamic state of source
  4. Many other concepts that enable him to estimate the distance of object from observer

After having developed the above concepts, using Hubble telescope – he concludes the expanding universe as an observed fact. On the basic observation of radiation frequency shift being proportional to apparent distance of astronomical object (geometric), the conclusion is influenced by his Intuition as follows;

  1. There is no other possible reason except dynamic state of source to cause frequency shifts
  2. Theory of origin of universe – exploding universe
  3. The heavenly objects having continued to maintain the dynamic integrity of motion relative to origin site of explosion over billion of years
  4. Self locate to a position very close to original site of explosion, as universal matter is nearly uniform distributed in all directions relative to observer.

Such an observer can also be called a concept observer with knowledge that enables him to interpret his observation to establish or deny the truthfulness of a given hypothesis.

An extreme example of concept observer is ‘Inertial frame of reference in Newtonian and Relativistic Physics’. This concept observer imbibes following concepts;

  1. Uniformity of space
  2. Dimensions & Spatial distance concept
  3. Concept of time and simultaneity of events
  4. All object exist in space and occupy a part of it

In contemporary physics the concept observers exist in silence.

Concept Observer in Pico-Physics

Pico-Physics defines some concept observers similar to Newtonian frame of reference with specific relationship to objects and observers. These are;

  1. Internal Observer
  2. External Observer
  3. Independent Observer
  4. General Observer

Internal Observer

This observer is internal to object – the object as its own observer. An analogy is Doctor negotiating with Patient about his medical condition. Patient as his own observer can feel and describe his condition using senses better than the doctor can observe as an external observer.

External Observer

This observer is identical to internal observer but is situated just outside (the occupied space – space native to object). Here again simple analogy is feeling whether your son has fever by grasping his wrist. You and your son being in same external environment shall have same temperature, if a difference exists, one can feel the other.

Object References

Both Internal & External Observers belong to set of concept observers called Object References. The results of observation are dependant on object alone. The result of observation is independent of observer. Archeology (Artifacts as observer of historical changes) makes extensive use of object references, to confirm, deny and discover historical events.

Relative or Independent Observer

This is any observer (that is neither internal & external) who can accumulate and decipher the influence of other events and objects external to the object it-self. These observers don’t depend on the communications from the object under observation to observe, but have independent means to observe. Analogies are observing the speed of the object by reference of incident and reflected lights from the surface of the object. Observers in this category include Inertial Frame of reference (as in relativity).

General Observer

A general observer is an independent observer, without reference to means of observation. It is capable of selectively applying basic inherent characteristics common to all objects and interactions. It is a tool, to understand the affect of limitations imposed by nature to be observed. It is also the default observer in Pico-Physics unless otherwise specified.

General Observer is used in PicoPhysics to selective apply hypothesized limitations on observer. It enables models be built to explain the interaction of space & energy (Observable to Object references alone), and what is observable to relative & independent observers.

An observation includes participation in the interaction by the object reference, meaningful interpretation of the interaction and communication to the General Observer.


At full capabilities; an observer identifies, interprets and integrates the experience with accessible knowledge base using cause-effect logic before the observation is recorded. Such an observer will include the detectors, instruments, data collectors, scientists, science journals and books, various hypothesis, laws and theories in science, and the scientific discourses.

The subject of observation may be an object, parameters or concept. The observer is different from subject of observation.

The observation is an abstraction – a projection of reality on the observer.

This separation enables us to conceive observers such as reference system with defined properties to understand nature. Cause effect logic can be applied with confidence to observations by concept observers.

Concept observers with defined observation capability are hypothesized to communicate a scientific logic. These can be defined in reference to subject under observation or independent of subject.

All observers have limited power to observe.

The limitations may affect any of observation stage. The limitations due to technology, access to scientific knowledge base improves with time. There are others that depend on the subject itself, the characteristic of the subject that enables it to be experienced and measured.



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